Palm trees in their natural environment grow in tropical and subtropical climates. Only a few species are suitable for growing at home. The benefits of growing a tropical beauty in the house are great.
- purify the air and saturate the room with oxygen;
- the green color of the plant has a beneficial effect on the nervous system;
- have a calming effect, helps to deal with stress.
You can grow this tropical beauty in an apartment using seeds.
There are more than 200 varieties of palm trees intended for growing at home. The following are more in demand:
Selection and preparation of seeds
It is recommended to purchase seed material in specialized stores. When choosing seeds, it is necessary to pay attention to the timing of collection, since the seeds remain viable for three years. It is also recommended to check the quality certificate.
Selected seeds are soaked in two days in warm water. The pulp swollen during soaking is cleaned off. The water is changed every 12 hours. In the process of swelling, substances that inhibit the development process are removed from the top layer of seeds.
After soaking, hard-shelled seeds are lightly ground with sandpaper. This will speed up the penetration of moisture to the embryo. The layer cannot be destroyed completely.
Sowing seeds can be done at any time of the year. Flower soil is suitable for sowing . Fill a 500 ml pot with soil and plant several seeds in each to a depth of 3 cm. The interval between seeds should be 4 cm. After planting, moisten the soil. To create greenhouse conditions, the pot is covered with polyethylene and placed in a warm, well-lit room. Every day, polyethylene must be removed to ventilate the seedlings. The soil must be kept constantly moist.
Germination of seeds is a long process and takes from four weeks to six months. If the seeds are germinated in the winter, then the pot must be installed next to the battery. The temperature for germination of sprouts should be above +25 degrees.
Video: how to sow palm seeds
After germination, the polyethylene is removed. When the sprouts reach a height of three cm, they must be planted in separate pots. The transplant is carried out with a clod of earth, so as not to damage the still undeveloped root system.
The soil for the further growth of seedlings is prepared by mixing the following ingredients in equal proportions:
- leafy earth;
- compost land;
- peat ;
- coarse river sand.
Lighting should be diffused throughout the first year of growth. Care in the first year of life consists in timely watering. The soil must be constantly moist. If there is no humidifier in the room, it is recommended to spray the leaves with warm water on both sides. Periodically wipe the leaves with a damp sponge.
To prevent the appearance of pests, once every 30 days, the palm tree is watered with a light decoction of chamomile.
The temperature in the room during the growth period should be maintained + 25-27 degrees.
The first dressing is applied 180 days after transplantation. For these purposes, flower fertilizer is suitable. During the period of active growth from March to September, the plant is fertilized every seven days. In autumn – 1 time in 15 days. In winter, once a month.
In the second year, true leaves appear on the palm. Until the age of three, the palm tree is transplanted every year. When transplanting, the pot must be taken larger than the previous one. Transplantation should be carried out as carefully as possible, by transshipment, so as not to damage the root system.
For transplanting, you can use ready-made soil mixture for palm trees or cook it yourself by mixing the ingredients in the following proportions:
- humus-leaf land – 5 kg;
- clay-turf soil – 5 kg;
- rotted manure – 2.5 kg;
- peat – 2.5 kg;
- calcined river sand – 2.5 kg;
- a small amount of charcoal.
Growing date palm from seed
To grow a date palm, you need to remove the seed from the fruit and soak it for 48 hours in warm water. Peel the soaked pulp from the stone, rinse it well under running water to prevent rotting in the soil. It is best to prepare several seeds for planting.
After cleaning, the bones are poured with warm water and left for two days in the sun or near heating appliances. Water must be changed three times a day. We plant the swollen bone in a 200 ml pot filled with palm soil, deepening it by 2 cm. In order for the seeds to germinate faster, it is recommended to add vermiculite to the soil in a ratio of 1: 1. After planting, we water well and place the pot with seeds in a room with a temperature not lower than +25 degrees. To get the fastest result, the pot is covered with polyethylene, creating a greenhouse effect.
To prevent mold from appearing on the ground, polyethylene is removed daily for 10 minutes to ventilate the seedlings and moisten the soil. The germination process lasts from two to six weeks.
The hatched sprout must be transplanted into a pot with a capacity of 300 ml. Transplantation should be done with extreme care so as not to damage the roots. For transplanting, it is necessary to prepare the soil by mixing the following ingredients:
- sand – 4 parts;
- sod land – 2 parts;
- peat – 2 parts;
- humus – 2 parts;
- charcoal – 1 part.
Date palm care
In order for the plant to please with its appearance, it is necessary to carry out the following care measures:
- It is necessary to ensure regular watering and spraying. Watering should be moderate. Waterlogging the soil will lead to root rot.
- Turn the pot periodically 180 degrees to ensure an even distribution of light.
- During the period of active growth, it is necessary to make top dressing every week. To do this, use fertilizer for indoor flowers. In winter, top dressing is applied once a month.
- When transplanting, a tall pot is chosen, since the date palm has long roots. When transplanting it, part of the roots is carefully cut.
Propagation of a palm tree by dividing a bush
By dividing the bush, not all palm trees can be propagated, but only bush ones. These palms include:
It is best to perform the division procedure in May, when transplanting a bush. It is necessary to separate the side branch up to 25 cm high. Such a process will be easier to take root. The shoot must have its own roots, flexible stems and a formed branch.
An adult plant takes out of the pot, and gently shake the earth from the roots. Carefully cut the connective roots with a sharp machined knife. The cut must be made as close as possible to an adult plant. Slices must be sprinkled with powdered charcoal.
Pour soil prepared in the following proportion into a small pot:
- sod land – 1 part;
- perlite – 2 parts;
- leaf humus – 2 parts.
We plant a young plant in the prepared soil, water it and place it for rooting in a room with a temperature of + 32-35 degrees. If the temperature in the room is lower than necessary, then a frame is made of wire and a plastic bag is put on it. The bag is removed daily to air the seedling and check the soil moisture. When the top layer dries, it is necessary to moderately water the plant. Excessive moisture, and stagnation of water in the soil is not permissible. This can lead to root rot. If a greenhouse is not installed over a young plant, then it must be irrigated daily with a spray bottle with warm settled water.
Practical tips for creating conditions for growing palm trees in the house
In order for your palm tree to feel comfortable and pleasing to the eye, certain growing and care conditions must be observed:
- All palms grown indoors require plenty of good natural light. It should be located in a place where there is maximum sunlight. With a lack of lighting, the plant stretches, becomes weak and is easily affected by spider mites and mealybugs.
- In the room where the palm tree is installed, the air temperature should be at least +25 degrees.
- You can not install a palm tree near heating appliances, since the leaves and root system will suffer if there is a lack of moisture.
- Watering should be regular, but moderate. Watering is necessary as the topsoil dries. Too much moisture can cause root rot.
- For irrigation, use only filtered or settled water for 24 hours. The water temperature must match the air temperature in the room.
- An important condition for good growth is air humidity. Daily spraying of the plant with distilled or filtered water will have a beneficial effect on the condition of the plant.
- Top dressing must be made, clearly adhering to the instructions. An overabundance of fertilizers in the soil can adversely affect the life of the plant.
- When transplanting a plant, you must be very careful, since even the slightest damage to the root system will negatively affect the further growth and development of the plant. When transplanting, the volume of the pot should be larger than the previous one, taking into account the growth of the palm tree.
Growing a palm tree is not a quick process, requiring patience, attention and proper care. However, a palm tree grown from seeds with your own hands will become your pride and decoration of your home or office.