Potato cancer

potato cancer Blog

What is potato cancer and why is it dangerous?

Potato cancer is one of the most dangerous quarantine diseases. The fungus that causes this disease is an intracellular parasite. It does not form mycelium. In the development cycle of the fungus, there are winter dormant spores – zoosporangia, which can remain in the soil for up to 30 years, are present in the affected tubers, in the tops. With the onset of favorable conditions, zoosporangia germinate, forming 200-300 motile uniflagellate spores. Moving in the soil solution, zoospores fall on vegetative plants and penetrate into their tissues. This is where the pest is growing. Tumors appear on the plant.

Potato cancer destroys the entire crop, severely affecting both the aerial parts of plants and tubers. Affected tubers have outgrowths at first of a light color, which then darken, become brown. With a strong development of the disease, such growths can form not only on the stems and leaves, but even on the flowers of plants. The size of the growths is different – from a small pea to the size of the tuber itself. Outwardly, these growths resemble cauliflower inflorescences.

Such tubers are not suitable for food and livestock feed. Potatoes are especially affected by cancer with a permanent culture, in home gardens, where potatoes are grown in one place from year to year. If affected bushes are found on the site, they must certainly be burned and then, for 3 years, crops that are not susceptible to cancer are grown here: beets, cabbage, cucumbers, onions.

What to do if you find potato cancer?

If tubers with cancer growths are found on the site, it is necessary to report this to the plant protection station. Unaffected tubers from the site where the cancer was found can only be used for livestock feed, and then after pre-boiling for an hour. Otherwise, after passing through the digestive tract of the animal, the zoosporangia of the fungus remain in a viable state and, when introduced into the soil with manure, will cause the appearance of a new focus of potato cancer. It should be borne in mind that the disease also affects other plants of the nightshade family: tomatoes, physalis, henbane, black nightshade, etc.

Chemical methods of soil disinfection from potato cancer have been developed. They are carried out strictly under the control of the State Plant Quarantine Inspectorate by specialists of this service. Of the chemical control measures used: presowing disinfection of tubers with a 1% solution of foundationazole or a 0.5% suspension of benleit (benomyl). Just half an hour of keeping the tubers completely disinfect them from potato cancer. In addition, the treatment will improve germination, reduce the susceptibility to other diseases and increase yields.

How to fight cancer without chemistry?

To disinfect the site from a cancerous infection, crop rotation with row crops should be used. When corn is included in the crop rotation, the root secretions of which provoke the germination of zoosporangia of the fungus, the soil can be cleared in 5-6 years. Developed corn plants are uprooted and burned.

Cancer-resistant varieties play an extremely important role in the eradication of cancer. Pure-bred plots of resistant varieties can stop the spread of a quarantine outbreak.

Currently, domestic and foreign varieties of potatoes resistant to cancer are known. They are zoned in the whole of the Russian Federation. Of the early-ripening, shell-resistant domestic varieties include Vesna, Beloyarsky early, Mostovskoy, Priekulsky early, Zhukovsky, Forget-me-not, Shurminsky, Pushkinets. From the Dutch – Aksu, Prior, Anosta. In the mid-early group, domestic varieties are immune to cancer: Nevsky, Svitanok Kiev, Prigozhy 2, Bezhetsky, Laimdota. From foreign countries – Adretta (Germany), Sante, Agria and Condor (Holland). In the group of mid-season varieties, Stolovy-19, Bronnitsky, Lugovskoy, Golubizna, Nesterovsky, Victoria, Grant, Nida, Vihola, Famoza, Romane are resistant to cancer. Lasunok, Zarevo, Kardinal are resistant to cancer.

TRACTOR FARM
Add a comment