Sweet peppers, such as bell peppers, are less damaged by diseases and pests than other counterparts from the nightshade family, but still, they get sick. Moreover, causative agents of diseases, if the conditions for growing this crop are not observed, can quickly develop, and the crop dies.
We will not dwell on the diseases of young seedlings of sweet peppers – this, of course, is a black leg, which is easy to deal with: wood ash is added (100 g per 1 m2), plantings are thinned, the soil surface is sprinkled with clean sand with a layer of 1-1.5 cm , timely paying attention to the fact that when watering the sand cover is not washed away. And at the first sign of a black leg, plants and soil are watered with a slightly pink solution of potassium permanganate.
Diseases of adult peppers
The situation is more complicated with diseases of adult plants. It is known that gardeners, as a rule, grow bell peppers in greenhouses and greenhouses. And if a series of sharp changes in day and night temperatures follow, zonal spotting, or microsporosis, develops on plants. In the open field, zonal spotting threatens when hot, dry weather alternates with heavy rains and nightly dews. On the lower leaves rounded brown spots appear, about 1 cm in diameter, on which concentric circles are clearly visible. The disease gradually affects the upper leaves, the spots merge, the leaves dry up, and with a strong development of the disease, both stems and fruits are affected.
To prevent zonal spotting, it is necessary to warm up the seeds before sowing, be sure to burn post-harvest residues, water evenly and try to maintain the optimal mode in the greenhouse: 24-28 ° C during the day and 16-20 ° C at night.
Bulgarian peppers are sick with another spotting – black bacterial. On all parts of the plants, at first small, and then increasing black spots with a yellowish border appear. If the plant becomes ill before the formation of buds, then it usually dies. Bacteria, and they live both in plant debris and in seeds, penetrate the leaves through stomata, and into the fruits through mechanical damage.
This disease is useless to treat, you can only warn: destroy plant debris, pickle seeds in potassium permanganate, exclude nightshade as a precursor, disinfect the soil in the greenhouse.
Gray mold of pepper
The disease mainly develops in film greenhouses, where the temperature regime is often disturbed.
On green or ripening fruits, light green, rounded, at first small, with a diameter of 0.2-0.5 cm, spots that increase with time, brown dots stand out in the center – places of infection. At this stage, the spots look watery. Later, the spots merge. In places of defeat, the fetus begins to rot.
With high humidity in greenhouses, especially in those places where water penetrates through the cracks between frames and glass, rotting fruits quickly become covered with gray mold. The fungus spreads by air currents, drops of water, contaminated soil. The causative agent of gray rot overwinters in greenhouse soil and on the inner surface of glass.
The disease is prevented by the observance of the correct cultural circulation (avoid compactors), the timely and thorough destruction of dying and affected plant organs, and active ventilation. Humidity in greenhouses should be optimal. Damaged areas are recommended to be coated with a paste consisting of a 0.2% solution of 50% s. p. fundozol (1 part) and chalk (2 parts), or crushed coal, as well as solutions of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate at the rate of 5 g / l of water.
The development of gray rot is limited by spraying plants with garlic infusion (30 g of garlic pulp, infused for 2 days in 10 liters of water).
Bell pepper pests
But sweet peppers can not only hurt, their crops can suffer greatly from the insatiable naked slug, which any gardener knows well. To fight this glutton, you need to know its habits: during the day, slugs sit in secluded places – under large leaves, boards, stones, in thick wet grass, and at dusk they crawl out and feed, and most actively after 23 hours. In cloudy and damp weather and during the day they can take on peppers. These mollusks are very moisture-loving, so a wet summer is expanse for them. In dry weather, they die.
If you know their habits, then fighting slugs is not so difficult:
- firstly, remove places of high humidity from the garden, thin out thickened crops;
- secondly, deep dig the soil in the fall;
- thirdly, to collect these pests, having previously laid out boards, wet rags, pieces of plywood, etc., in secluded places, where they rest during the day;
- fourthly, at quiet twilight, when the slugs take their place in the garden, pollinate them with a mixture of tobacco dust with lime, or ash (30 g per 1 m2). The slugs will fall from the plants onto the soil and shed their dirty, slippery film and be left naked. True, in half an hour they will return to the plants again, but they need to be pollinated again – the slugs will not survive this.