The mustard plant belongs to the Cabbage family. The most common types of mustard are white mustard from the genus Sinapis, Russian or Sarepta mustard and black mustard, belonging to the genus Brassica. All three species are valuable oilseeds. In terms of nutritional properties, mustard oil is superior to sunflower oil. The largest areas are occupied by Sarepta mustard. Recently, there has been increasing interest in white and black mustard as highly profitable crops.
- Requirements for environmental factors
- Place in crop rotation , predecessors
- Most suitable as predecessors for all types of Mustard:
- Predecessors that have a negative impact on the development of Mustard:
- Varieties of Mustard
- White mustard is represented by modern varieties:
- The latest varieties of Sarepta Mustard:
- Recently, delicious varieties of Sarepta Mustard have appeared:
- Varieties of black mustard:
- Growing mustard as a field crop
- Growing mustard as green manure
- Growing mustard salad
- Growing greens at home
Requirements for environmental factors
To obtain high yields of mustard, it is necessary to carefully choose a place for planting it. Soils are preferably fertile with a slightly acidic and neutral reaction of the environment (pH 6.5-7.0). White mustard does not work on sandy soils, it is very moisture-loving. Sarepta mustard can grow on infertile soils with little salinity, tolerates drought, and black mustard is thermophilic and requires highly fertile soils .
All types of Mustard are very cold-resistant, their seeds actively germinate already at an average daily air temperature of 1 … 3 ° C. Mustard rosettes withstand return frosts down to -7 … 9 ° C. Crops optimally use the natural moisture reserves in the soil.
Place in crop rotation , predecessors
Most suitable as predecessors for all types of Mustard:
- grain crops (wheat, rye, barley);
- legumes (peas, soybeans, beans, lentils, vetch, beans, lupins);
- tilled crops (corn, potatoes, carrots, beets);
- clean steam.
Predecessors that have a negative impact on the development of Mustard:
- White cabbage.
These crops have common diseases, are affected by the same pests, along with mustard. In turn, mustard is a soil-improving crop often used as green manure . It is especially valuable as a precursor for wheat, rye and other grain crops. Mustard roots penetrate very deep into the depths, which contributes to the saturation of the soil profile with oxygen, it is actively drained. The earth is cleared of weeds, pathogens and pest larvae, and is saturated with nutrients.
Varieties of Mustard
White mustard is represented by modern varieties:
- Fairy is a technical variety for making butter. Yields at any time of sowing, resistant to drought, diseases and pests;
- Ruslana is a versatile variety for cooking oil and obtaining seeds used as seasonings, as well as for growing for fodder purposes and as green manure. Resistant to diseases and pests;
- Lucia – the variety produces large white seeds used in the food and canning industry;
- Borovska is a Polish oilseed variety. Seeds give up to 30% fatty oil. Ripens late, 130 days after germination.
The latest varieties of Sarepta Mustard:
- Caprice – produces yellow seeds with an oil content of over 45%, resistant to drought, diseases and pests;
- Vivat is very drought-resistant, yielding over 46% oil.
Recently, delicious varieties of Sarepta Mustard have appeared:
- Appetizing – greens are ready for harvest in 20 days. The leaves are purple in color, large, corrugated with jagged edges with a pleasant mustard taste;
- Sandwich – green leaves, strongly corrugated, rosettes 30 cm high;
- Arigato – oval leaves, green with red veins, very juicy;
- Diner – green leaves with a jagged edge, corrugated;
- Old healer – the greens ripen in 28-30 days, the leaves are smooth, elongated-oval, serrated, juicy with a mustard flavor.
Varieties of black mustard:
- Niagara – the variety is cultivated to obtain technical non-drying oil, resistant to diseases and pests, brown seeds;
- Smuglyanka is a food grade, gives over 46% of oil, has four-sided pods.
The use of fresh mustard greens in food helps to saturate the body with vitamins, microelements, and essential amino acids. Mustard in the form of a seasoning has a tonic and mild laxative effect, stimulates the gastrointestinal tract, increases the body’s resistance to pathogens. Mustard powder in the form of mustard plasters is an old and effective remedy for colds, as well as a distracting drug for hypertensive crises and strokes. Cakes and other waste products of oil production, as well as mustard greens are valuable lumpy products.
Growing mustard as a field crop
After harvesting the grain predecessor, the stubble is hulled or disked with heavy harrows. Plowing is carried out in autumn or spring, when the soil allows you to enter the field. The depth of plowing is 20-25 cm. In spring, the soil is harrowed with tine harrows, then the plot is cultivated. Immediately before sowing, the soil is rolled. Sowing is carried out in the form of lines with a distance of 15 cm at a soil temperature at a depth of 2-4 cm of at least 8-10 o C. The seeding rate is 1.5-2 million viable seeds per 1 ha. If the crops are seed, the distance between the lines is increased to 45-70 cm, and the sowing rate is reduced. It is important that the seeds be treated with disinfectants before sowing, which will protect them from diseases and pests for at least a month.
The calculation of the doses of applied fertilizers is carried out on the basis of the removal of nutrients with the harvest. Thus, 55-60 kg of nitrogen, 25-30 kg of phosphorus and 25-35 kg of potassium are removed from 1 ton of mustard seeds. Organic fertilizers for Mustard are not applied, since they significantly inhibit the maturation of seeds. The most acceptable is to add organics under the previous culture. Insecticides are used to control pests. Cleaning is carried out in a direct or separate way. Direct combining is suitable if the moisture content of the seeds does not exceed 12-15%. Seeds with a moisture content of 8-9% are stored for storage.
Growing mustard as green manure
Sowing is carried out at the end of July or August after harvesting early potatoes, peas, winter crops. In the fields, they sow in rows; in personal plots, sowing can be carried out randomly in pre-moistened soil. The seeds are lightly covered to prevent them from drying out and being eaten by birds. Shoots appear within 4-7 days. If the weather is dry at the end of summer, 2-3 waterings should be carried out. Green manure should be planted in the soil before flowering – in late September – early October.
Growing mustard salad
Sowing mustard on greens can be done in early spring or late summer. In the spring, and also after harvesting the predecessor, the soil is leveled, watered well if necessary, and shallow grooves are prepared at a distance of 20-25 cm from each other. Then the seeds are sown, while the grooves are slightly leveled. To preserve moisture, the beds are covered with a film. When shoots appear, the film is removed. Crops are regularly watered from a watering can, weeds are removed. If the shoots turned out to be very thick, they can be slightly thinned out. Greens are very quickly ready for harvest, already with a leaf length of 5 cm, it can be eaten.
Growing greens at home
Shallow containers are suitable for sowing lettuce mustard. Young vitamin greens can also be obtained by germinating seeds on damp paper or cloth. Before germination, the crops are kept warm, and after germination, the air temperature is lowered to 16-18 ° C. Greenery can be cut with a leaf length of about 5 cm. Watering is carried out daily from a spray bottle. For a continuous supply of fresh herbs, it is advisable to sow weekly, from the end of February to the end of March.
Thus, growing different types of mustard from seeds is not difficult. This plant sprouts and grows very quickly. All species have valuable properties, are useful for the body, heal the soil.