Useful properties of garlic
Garlic is widely used. Young leaves go to vegetable salads, put it in sauces, seasonings, add to sausages, meat and fish dishes. Chopped garlic gives the roast an appetizing smell and taste, and if you sprinkle any porridge on it at the moment of cooking and hold it under the lid for 5 minutes, the porridge will seem to you a very pleasant dish. Garlic is indispensable for pickling and pickling vegetables. By the way, don’t you throw away the garlic used as a seasoning after eating canned cucumbers or tomatoes? Eat it too, or chop and sprinkle on any dish.
Garlic is used in medicine, veterinary medicine, in the fight against diseases and pests of a number of crops. The ability of garlic phytoncides to selectively act on pathogenic microflora was tested in the fight against late blight of potatoes and tomatoes, vascular bacteriosis of cabbage, bacterial cancer of tomatoes.
The nutritional and medicinal benefits of garlic, noticed by humans in ancient times, have been tested by experience for thousands of years. Garlic helps with bloating, suppresses gastric parasites, and kills bacteria. To disinfect the gastrointestinal tract, it would be desirable for each person to carry out such a preventive measure once every six months: in the morning on an empty stomach, chew a clove of garlic and swallow it without anything, even without water, at least half an hour before meals. And so for 5 days in a row.
Of course, the procedure is not pleasant. If you cannot chew, swallow the gruel of the pre-wiped slices. During the first procedure, the stomach sometimes reacts sharply, then drink it down with a sip of water. With the second and subsequent receptions, as a rule, there is no cramps.
Garlic is known to be an effective antiscorbutic agent. It is useful in the treatment of atherosclerosis, catarrh of the respiratory tract, colitis, hemorrhoids. The bactericidal properties of garlic, due to its volatile phytoncides, are used to prevent sore throat and flu. Such an experience is known: during a flu epidemic, young toddlers were put on a necklace of 3-5 cloves of garlic around their necks, and the incidence in this group was 50% less than in all nurseries.
What you need to know about garlic?
For those who want to grow garlic on their site, planting, growing and harvesting it should not seem difficult. A feature of garlic is the lack of seed reproduction. It is propagated vegetatively, either by the teeth of a large onion, or by bulbs ripening on high arrows. Over the summer, a small toothless bulb grows from the bulbs, and already from it the next summer a large adult multi-toothed bulb of garlic is formed. In many cultivated varieties of garlic, the bulb contains from 4 to 15 cloves, so the multiplication rate is low, a significant part of the harvest is used for subsequent planting.
In cultivated garlic, arrow and non-arrow forms are distinguished. Large, full-weight teeth of the outer rows should be used as planting material. Weak plants will develop from the immature internal teeth.
In the centuries-old practice of growing a crop such as garlic, planting, cultivation and care are carried out in accordance with two methods – winter and spring. In our region, winter crops have gained an advantage. All arrowhead varieties are typically winter crops. For their development, autumn vegetation is necessary; during spring planting, the nature of the plant’s development is disturbed, which will negatively affect the yield. Spring garlic is planted in spring as early as possible. Planting in spring provides good keeping quality, but less yield.
Planting winter garlic
Winter garlic is planted in the fall, before winter. For our region, planting before winter begins in the third decade of September. Immediately after planting in the fall, the root system of the plant begins to develop, but the leaves do not have time to grow before frost. Overwintering of garlic depends on how much the root system has developed. If long thaws are observed in winter, activating growth processes, its winter hardiness drops sharply and in the spring some plants will be frozen. Spring frosts that occur after it grows can also damage garlic. Overwintering also depends on the planting depth. Better to deepen by 10-12 centimeters, since in spring, when the soil thaws, the lobule is pushed out and it can freeze. But sometimes, especially on heavy soils, some slices that have lingered with sprouting have to be dug out a little. When deepening on7 centimeters, as a rule, all lobules grow back on their own. Garlic is sown in rows after 5-7 centimeters, and the rows are either brought together in pairs by 2530 cm, leaving between each pair on 70 cm, or sow all rows in one line through 50 cm… Plants grown with thickening are distinguished by high activity of growth processes, acceleration of the formation and maturation of bulbs and bulbs with a slight decrease in the weight of each plant. It has been noticed that thickened garlic is better stored.
Caring for garlic and its reproduction does not present any particular difficulties, the technology of growing garlic is available to everyone. Garlic is grown in well-lit areas with fairly fertile, well-prepared soil. He does not like acidic soils; with increased acidity, liming is necessary. Garlic absolutely does not tolerate the introduction of fresh manure, even for the introduction of manure in the previous year it responds negatively. Garlic care consists of watering and feeding. Humus or compost is applied directly under the garlic, and before planting, mineral fertilizers (urea 10-12 g (m2) double superphosphate 25-30 g, potassium salt 30-40 g.) In the first half of the growing season in dry years, garlic needs watering, but when it ripens, watering is harmful. If you do not need air bulbs for reproduction, then it is advisable to remove the arrows as early as possible, while the yield increases by 20-25%. Young arrows of garlic are edible and good for pickling. Garlic can be grown in dense plantings between rows of carrots, salads, in beds with strawberries. In these cases, the smell of garlic to some extent scares off the carrot fly, female strawberry-raspberry weevil.
Winter garlic is harvested in late July – early August. Harvesting is carried out in the phase of yellowing of the leaves, when 6 scales are formed on the bulb (that is, 6 well-developed leaves on the plant). You should not be late with harvesting, since the strength of the covering scales is broken and the garlic will be worse stored. After harvesting, the leaves are not immediately cut off, but dried in the sun or under a canopy for 10 days, then cleaned of the remnants of the earth and exfoliated scales and laid for storage. Some experts recommend burning dried roots before storing. This is useful for disinfecting the bottom of the bulb, since when the soil is infected with a garlic nematode, the pests remain on the bottom, and during storage they spoil the garlic.
There is another uncommon technology of garlic culture – winter. In this case, the bulb is planted in spring or early summer. Sowing is done thickened. It is good to use areas after radish. The crop is not harvested in the year of sowing, the plants remain until winter. The main task is to get powerful vegetative plants by autumn without signs of bulb formation, which, having passed the autumn hardening, winter well and the next year give a high yield of large single-toothed or arrow-shaped bulbs. Bulbules for spring sowing are stored in inflorescences at temperatures from -5 to +5. When stored warm, the growth rate of the plant after planting decreases.