Cardamom: features of growing from seeds

cardamom features of growing from seeds Blog

Cardamom is a spicy perennial plant in the ginger family. This plant is native to India and Ceylon. The height of the plant is from 150 to 300 cm, it has a fairly powerful root system, and two types of stems – false and creeping. The false stem is covered with thin elongated leaves, pointed at the ends, up to 65-70 cm long and 7 cm wide. The leaves are dark green in color. The creeping stalk has no leaves; small flowers are located on it. One petal has a white color with purple stains in the middle, the rest of the petals have a greenish tint.

After the end of the flowering period, in place of flowers, oblong-shaped fruits are formed, 2 cm long. Pods, depending on the type of plant, may have a color:

  • the black;
  • Red;
  • White.

The pods have three sides and a hard thin coating. Seeds in the pod are arranged in vertical rows, separated by a thin membrane, and have a ribbed shape, black-brown color with a rich aroma.

In the climatic conditions of our country, cardamom can only be grown in greenhouses or apartments.

Reproduction is possible in the following ways:

  • growing from seed;
  • rooting tops;
  • dividing the bush.

Growing from seed

cardamom seeds

To grow cardamom from seeds, you need to prepare the soil by mixing the following components:

  • garden soil ;
  • humus;
  • river sand.

The components are mixed in a ratio of 2:2:1

A drainage layer is laid out at the bottom of the pot. This will help remove excess moisture and prevent root rot. Soil is poured into the pot and seeds are placed, two seeds in each container. The grains must be freshly harvested, otherwise there will be no seedlings. Seeds are covered with a thin layer of soil, watered and covered with cling film to create a greenhouse effect. Set the pot in a well-lit place. The temperature in the room must be maintained at + 23-25 ​​degrees. Every day, the film is removed for a short period of time to ventilate the seedlings – this will prevent the appearance of mold. Moisten the soil as needed. The first shoots will appear in 35-55 days, however, the greenhouse is removed only when the seedlings grow to a height of 15-20 cm. As they grow, polyethylene can be changed to a glass jar, or a cut plastic bottle. When the seedlings reach the desired height, the shelter is removed and they are seated in small, wide pots.

Care

Cardamom

For good growth, the plant needs proper care:

  1. Watering is carried out in the summer every day, in winter, during the dormant period every 10-14 days. For irrigation use settled water at room temperature.
  2. Plant feeding is carried out in spring and summer, stimulating good plant growth. The first top dressing is applied 60 days after plant transplantation. Up to this point, the plant takes all the nutrients from the soil. Mineral-organic top dressing for vegetable crops is suitable for fertilizing seedlings. It is not recommended to use nitrogen-containing fertilizer frequently, so as not to harm the plant.
  3. The plant does not tolerate dry air, so in winter it is recommended to use the Zircon preparation once every 14 days to increase resistance.
  4. Every year in March or April, it is necessary to prune in order to form a crown. Carry out this event as follows:
  • one side trunk is removed completely so that the second “false” trunk stretches upwards;
  • when cutting the shoot, two buds are left so that the plant begins to form a bush;
  • all branches sticking out to the sides and breaking the symmetry of the bush are removed;
  • it is also necessary to thin out the branches directed at each other so as not to interfere with the full development;
  • to ensure uniform growth of shoots, it is necessary to pinch the top.

Reproduction by rooting tops

To propagate cardamom by rooting the tops from an adult bush, it is necessary to cut cuttings 7-10 cm long. The cut is made with a sharp, machined blade. The cut point must be sprinkled with crushed activated carbon or ash. This will prevent rotting. To improve the growth of roots, the plant must be treated with succinic or boric acid at the cut point and placed in water or wet sand. When the roots appear, the stalk is planted in a pot with nutrient soil and watered. We should not forget that the plant must be sprayed regularly.

Reproduction by dividing the bush

Cardamom

A healthy mother bush is taken out of the pot, the roots are carefully freed from the ground and divided into two parts with a sharp knife. The tool must be processed before the division procedure. The cut is treated with crushed activated carbon to prevent decay and planted in freshly prepared nutrient soil. It is impossible to plant in previously used soil, since it does not have enough nutrients necessary for good growth and full development of the plant. In the process of growth, it is recommended to transplant the plant into a new soil regularly up to two times a year.

Varieties of cardamom

Green cardamom (Elitaria) is the main species. It is used in the preparation of sweet and savory dishes. The pods of this species are green, the peel is translucent, the seeds are small, black.

This species is used not only in cooking, for the preparation of ceremonial dishes, but also in medicine for the preparation of medicines.

Another variety, black cardamom (Amomum), has a large dark brown pod. The seeds are black, have a smoky, more pungent odor. In India, this type of cardamom is used to prepare everyday food.

Composition of cardamom

Cardamom

The composition of cardamom includes many useful substances:

  • vitamin B group;
  • vitamins C, A, E;
  • terpineol;
  • magnesium;
  • iron;
  • potassium;
  • sodium;
  • calcium;
  • copper;
  • phosphorus;
  • manganese;
  • zinc;
  • protein;
  • carbohydrates;
  • riboflavin;
  • thiamine;
  • terpinel acetate

Useful properties of cardamom

The beneficial properties of cardamom have a beneficial effect on the body and have a preventive effect against various diseases:

  1. Pods brewed with honey are drunk instead of tea for flu diseases. This decoction is more effective in treating colds and coughs.
  2. Helps improve digestion.
  3. The aroma of the plant increases appetite and improves taste sensations.
  4. Carries out the normalization of blood sugar levels.
  5. Neutralizes bad breath in the mouth. Cardamom acts as a natural breath freshener and reduces toothache.
  6. Increases metabolism, promotes fat burning, accelerating the process of losing weight.
  7. Increases blood circulation in the body, is used as a means to combat respiratory diseases.
  8. Aromatherapy with essential oils of cardamom relieves insomnia.
  9. Due to the high content of vitamins B1, B2, B3, cardamom improves the state of the nervous system, relieves stress, removes depression and stimulates the brain.
cardamom oil

Cardamom oil has antiseptic properties. It is applied as follows:

  • a few drops added to the bath help to relax and calm down;
  • with inflammation of the lungs and bronchitis, inhalation helps expectoration;
  • eliminates heartburn and improves digestion when taken internally;
  • cardamom-based rubs help treat fungal infections;
  • inhale to calm the nervous system;
  • gargle with sore throat.

Contraindications for use

Use cardamom in moderation. Abuse of fragrant seasoning can cause diarrhea.

Contraindicated:

  • women during pregnancy and lactation;
  • in the presence of problems of the gallbladder;
  • with allergies;
  • with ulcers and gastritis of the stomach.

Use in cooking

Cardamom

In different countries, the use of cardamom is different:

  1. In India, in the homeland of its growth, cardamom is used to add to the preparation of meat dishes and rice. It is also seasoned with fruits and nuts, used to add to drinks.
  2. In China, cardamom is added to tea.
  3. In Arab countries, fresh ground spice is added to coffee. Thanks to the rich aroma, coffee acquires a more refined taste and rich aroma. In addition, cardamom makes the effect of caffeine milder, which helps prevent high blood pressure and the occurrence of tachycardia.
  4. Among European peoples, cardamom is used to prepare various sauces and gravies, as well as:
  • a mixture of saffron and cumin with cardamom is used to season boiled fish;
  • for fried fish, cardamom is mixed with red pepper;
  • a mixture of cardamom and cayenne pepper improves the taste of seafood and baked fish;
  • fish aspic is prepared with the addition of cardamom and marjoram.
  1. In France, cardamom is added to liqueurs;
  2. The Germans use cardamom in combination with other spices when making lebküchen Christmas gingerbread.
  3. In Russia, cardamom is added when cooking veal, beef, lamb. Use for:
  • goulash;
  • pilaf;
  • minced meat;
  • meat on a spit;
  • pates.

Also widely used in the confectionery industry when baking:

  • gingerbread;
  • cakes;
  • cupcakes
  • honey cakes;
  • yeast dough products.

The norms for the use of spices in the confectionery industry in ground form – from 0.3 g. up to 0.5 gr. for one serving. In cooking, for the preparation of liquid dishes, the dose of application is half as much. Use the seeds, which are placed in the dish 5 minutes before the end of cooking.

cardamom coffee recipe

Coffee

Method number 1

The following ingredients are put in the Turk:

  • ground coffee beans – 1 tablespoon;
  • crushed cardamom – 1/4 teaspoon;
  • cool water – 150 ml.

All ingredients are mixed and boiled over low heat. The foam formed during cooking is removed, brought to a boil. The liquid is filtered, sugar is added to taste and milk. Instead of ground cardamom, you can use whole grains—10 per serving.

Method number 2

Coffee with cardamom and cinnamon

In a preheated Turk put:

  • ground coffee – 1 tablespoon without a slide;
  • cardamom – 3 grains;
  • cinnamon – 1 pinch;
  • vanilla – 1 pinch

Dry ingredients are poured with water in an amount of 0.5 cups and put on a slow fire, gradually bringing the liquid to a boil. Ready coffee is removed from heat and sugar is added to taste. To prepare coffee in this way, it is better to take a cinnamon stick and grate it before brewing.

How to make cardamom tea

tea with cardamom

Method number 1

To prepare this healthy drink, you need the following ingredients:

  • green cardamom – 3 pods;
  • black cardamom – 2 pods;
  • black tea – 2 tablespoons;
  • water – 1 liter;
  • sugar;
  • milk.

In a teapot, pour boiling water over tea, add spices, put on fire and bring to a boil. Strain the resulting drink, pour into cups and add milk and sugar to taste.

Method number 2

Tea with cardamom, cinnamon and lemon zest

To make tea, you will need the following ingredients:

  • cardamom – 8 grains;
  • black tea – 2 tablespoons;
  • lemon peel;
  • water – 1 liter;
  • grated cinnamon – 1 pinch.

Grind cardamom grains, pour into a container, pour 1 liter of water, put on a slow fire and boil for 10 minutes. Pour tea into a teapot scalded with boiling water, add lemon zest (instead of lemon, you can put orange zest if desired) and pour water with cardamom. Let the drink brew, strain, pour into cups, add milk and sugar to taste. This recipe is good for weight loss. To this end, you need to drink it on an empty stomach in the morning, 300 ml.

Cookies with cardamom

Biscuit

To make cookies you will need:

  • butter – 300 grams;
  • flour – 750 grams;
  • semolina – 150 grams;
  • powdered sugar – 150 grams;
  • ground cardamom – 1.5 teaspoons;
  • soda slaked with lemon juice – 0.5 teaspoon;
  • salt to taste.

Cooking sequence:

  1. Mix butter with cardamom, add powdered sugar, beat well with a mixer.
  2. Sift flour, mix with semolina and salt. You can add crushed nuts if you like.
  3. Combine butter with flour and knead a soft elastic dough.
  4. Roll out the dough, put on a baking sheet, cut and pierce with a fork.
  5. In an oven heated to 125 degrees, bake cookies until golden brown for an hour.
  6. Remove the finished cookies from the oven, sprinkle with sugar and leave on a baking sheet until cool.
  7. With a knife, resume cuts, put on a dish.

Sweet milk rice with cardamom

Rice

To prepare a milk dessert, you need to take:

  • rice – 150 grams;
  • milk – 750 ml;
  • sugar – 150 grams;
  • ground cardamom – 1.5 teaspoons.

Cooking method:

  1. Rinse rice, pour into a saucepan, add milk.
  2. Place the saucepan over low heat and bring the contents to a boil.
  3. Cook, stirring constantly until half of the milk has evaporated.
  4. When the milk thickens, add sugar and cardamom, boil for another 5 minutes, remove from heat and cool.

Cardamom is a spice with many health benefits. Considering the recommendations for growing, be sure to plant it at home, and use this healthy spice to your health.

TRACTOR FARM
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